By Richard Jones
A little known and highly modified variant of the Soviet-era Goryunov Medium Machine Gun (MMG) was manufactured in Hungary in the early 1960’s when the Hungarian military apparently found themselves in need of a General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG). It gave the flexibility of a light machine gun when carried by one man and fired-off a bipod and an MMG when mounted on a tripod in the sustained-fire role with ‘quick-change’ barrel facility.
The little known KORSZERÜ GORJUNOV KOLOSNYIKOV (KGK) was based on the Goryunov SG-43 MMG. Reportedly less than 1000 KGK’s were manufactured before the introduction of the Pulemet Kalashnikova (PK series) GPMG into the Hungarian Armed Forces. An examination of the KGK in the MOD Pattern Room collection is lacking any Soviet type inspection marks suggesting the KGK is either a conversion of a Hungarian manufactured copy of the SG-43 or possibly purpose-built from scratch.
Apart from a single page entry in a Hungarian language textbook on small arms, little information of substance has come to light on this intriguing, but heavyweight conversion of an existing wheel-mounted MMG into a GPMG. The KGK retains the ruggedness and simplicity of the SG-43 in operation using gas-piston operation and the extremely simple side-locking bolt of its parent the SG-43.
The KGK differs from its parent the SG-43 as follows:
- BARREL The barrel is of the longitudinally-fluted SGM type, the fluting is intended to lighten the weight of the barrel and as an aid in heat dissipation. The muzzle is fitted with a long prong-type flash-hider similar to the later PK GPMG. As shown in Fig 3 a flexible carrying-handle is fitted to the barrel towards the breech-end and acts as both a means of carrying the weapon when on the move and as a means of removing a hot-barrel during sustained-fire. (Note: The location of the carrying handle is still well-forward of the center of gravity, in consequence the gun is very butt heavy and the gunner when using the handle almost carries the gun in the vertical position!) (See Fig 3)
- Unlike the SG-43/SGM the KGK barrel is retained in the receiver by a transverse round-section pin in the forward end of the receiver. In consequence a half-moon cut-out in the lower barrel is provided immediately below the chamber area through which the barrel retaining pin passes. (See Fig 4)
- RECEIVER The receiver has been substantially modified. On the RHS of the lower receiver is a very prominent round-section charging handle, knurled for more effective grasping which replaces the sheet metal type of the side-mounted (SGMB) or rear-mounted extended (SG-43) original. On the LHS of the lower receiver, immediately behind and below the ammunition feed-way, a folding barrel-release lever is fitted. This is similar in form to the charging handle, and rests in the raised, folded position. Below the barrel-release lever are the letters ‘Z’ and ‘NY’. Locked position is indicated by ‘Z’ (ZARVA) and unlocked by ‘NY’ (NYTIVA). (See Fig 5)
- The SG-43 type cut-out for the barrel-wedge on the upper surface of the receiver has been left in place, but is redundant in function as the barrel is secured in place by the transverse cross-pin. (See Fig 6)
- TRIGGER/BUTT GROUP The thumb-trigger arrangement of the SG-43 has been replaced with a detachable pistol-grip which contains a simple pivoting sear giving automatic-fire only. A square-section transverse bar locks the trigger when the weapon is cocked. A solid RPD type butt replaces the spade-grip of the SG-43. (See Fig 7). A butt-trap is fitted for small weapon cleaning items. (See Fig 8).
- SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION The main serial number is located on the forward-end of the top cover, with major components being numbered to the gun. (See Fig 9)
- BIPOD The bipod is of the fixed non-adjustable type. The bipod legs are constructed of tubular-steel and attached to the forward end of the gas-piston shroud, immediately behind the gas-block. When not in use the bipod legs are folded rearwards under the body of the gun and held in place by a spring-clip fitted to the right leg. (See Fig 10)
- SIGHTING SYSTEM The front-sight consists of a machined base with protecting ears around a simple post-type foresight. The foresight can be adjusted for both elevation and bearing. The rear-sight is similar to the original SG-43. Rapid adjustment is provided by a spring-loaded button on the LHS of the sight riser, with fine-adjustment provide by a knurled knob on the top left of the sight. The KGK is sighted to fire both the heavy 200 grain Type D ball round and the current standard 148 grain Type LPS ball round in 7.62mm. To accommodate the substantially different bullet weights, the sight-bracket is marked ‘N’ on the LHS and sighted to 2300 meters for the Type D and on the RHS is marked with the letter ‘K’ and sighted to 2000 meters for use with the lighter Type LPS round. (See Fig 13)
- Disassembly Is simple! Ensure the weapon is unloaded. Remove the receiver cross-pin behind the pistol-grip and withdraw bolt and carrier. Remove pistol-grip/trigger cross-pin and remove unit. Unlock barrel (paragraph 6 refers) and remove. By lifting the top-cover, the removable feed mechanism and cartridge extractor can be removed for cleaning. It should not be necessary to strip the weapon any further. The KGK consists of 11 ‘soldier’ type components. (See Fig 14)
Richard Jones is the Assistant Custodian of the MOD Pattern Room Collection in Nottingham, England
|This article first appeared in Small Arms Review V5N1 (October 2001)|